DHCP: Acquire an IP address.
ARP: 1) Test your IP address at bootup or after DHCP renewal
2) Get a MAC address for an IP address.
DNS: 1) Resolve a name like https://www.netscout.com/ to an IP address. Once the name is resolved to an IP address, use ARP to resolve the IP address to a MAC address. "No MAC, no yak!".
2) Resolve an IP address like 188.8.131.52 to a name like http://www.netscout.com via an inverse/PTR lookup.
CLDAP: Find the fastest AD domain controller for your Active Directory Site's subnet.
WINS: 1) Register your NetBIOS name like LPC-AT10001 with its current IP address.
2) Resolve a NetBIOS name like LPC-AT10001 (laptop PC, asset tag 10001) to its IP address: similar to DNS in functionality but designed specifically for flat namespace names like NetBIOS.
3) NetBIOS Status Query to *<000000000000000> to resolve a NetBIOS name or IP address to a MAC address, in addition to listing all of the registered NetBIOS names like LPC-AT10001<20>.
RPC EPM: All well-known ports (0-1024) have been allocated. For an MS client to get a well-known service on an MS host, it uses RPC-based End Point Mapper on TCP port 135 to request a free port.
RPC NetRLogon: A remote procedure call used to 1) establish a secure channel with a Request/Challenge pair, 2) authenticate the machine, 3) prepare the list of trusted domains for the user.
Kerberos: 1) An authentication protocol used to authenticate both the machine and user in a realm or Microsoft domain. With Kerberos, you must prove 'you are who you say you are'.
2) Machine (and later a User) is granted a Ticket Granting Ticket (TGT) if trusted by the domain.
3) Machine (and later a User) will use the TGT to request a Service Ticket (ST) for a service like SMB in order to logon to a realm/domain-trusted resource.
CIFS/SMB: 1) A protocol developed by Microsoft and Intel back in late 1988 that permits logon, file I/O, printing, etc.
2) CIFS was the modernized component made publicly available by Microsoft in the early 90s to compete with ONC's Network File System. It has since been replaced with Samba.
3) SaMBa is the new Microsoft version of CIFS/SMB that permits Microsoft Domain/Active Directory-like functionality.