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`Hexadecimal (hex) to Decimal conversion requires briefly understanding number systems.`
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`Decimal is the Base 10 system. Numbers count from 0 to 9 in the right-most column. That is ten permutations, hence the name, Base 10.`
`The first column on the right is the ones column. `
`Multiply it by the Base to get the next column -  the tens.`
`Multiply the tens column by the Base to get the hundreds column.`
`Multiply the hundreds column by the Base to get the thousands column.`
`So, 0123 is a decimal number composed of the following:`
`3 x 1 = 3`
`2 x 10 = 20`
`1 x 100 = 100`
`0 x 1000 = 0000`
`Add them all up and you get 0123. `
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`In Hex, we use the Base 16 system. Numbers count from 0 to 9, then A to F in the right-most column. That is 16 permutations, hence the name, Base 16.`
`As with decimal, the first column on the right is the ones column.`
`Multiply it by the Base to get the next column - the sixteens.`
`Multiply the sixteens column by the Base to get the 256s column.`
`Multiply the 256s column by the Base to get the 4096s column.`
`So, 0x0123 as a hex number is composed of the following:`
`3 x 1 = 3`
`2 x 16 = 32`
`1 x 256 = 256`
`0 x 4096 = 0000`
`Add them all up and you get 0291.`
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`Therefore, 0x0123 in hex is equal to 0291 in decimal.`
`AND THAT IS HEX TO DECIMAL CONVERSION. `
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